History of CADHistory of Computer Aided Design. Acknowledgement. The Chronology of this paper is based on Marian Bozdoc's material. Periodically this information will be renewed with information from him or elsewhere. The original site however is dead: URL: http: //www. Another site. is now displaying his material too: http: //mbinfo. CAD- History. htm.
Introduction. What word processing is for a writer and an office worker. CAD is that for engineers. It's the electronic drawingboard. And belongs typically. High Tech world. CAD is known to only a relatively small group of professionals.
I Am Drafter! 27 May, 2011 By: Curt Moreno Assume any job title you want; just don't forget your roots in a vital and respectable craft. Editor's Note: This article. This is a list of file formats used by computers, organized by type. Filename extensions are usually noted in parentheses if they differ from the format name or. Cócteltv pertenece al grupo Balalaika Media S.L. C) Joan Verdeguer, nª3 bajo dcha 46024 - Valencia - España. www.cocteltv.com email@example.com. Find 3D models for your project in our vast online catalog of cars, people, textures, architectural models and more.
The program then creates workplans. In other words Computer Aided Design is software that enables.
History of Computer Aided Design. Marian Bozdoc, Auckland NZ. Acknowledgement. The Chronology of this paper is based on Marian Bozdoc's material. Periodically this.
Drawings for houses are now only made with CAD. Do you want the architect to change a door or replace a window? Use different. wood, have a bigger terrace, make the house one meter higher, larger?
Location Independent Living. Learning from locals – Being a better nomad. Being a Nu Nomad and having the luxury of prolonged travel has really changed the way I.
Or even. one extra floor? No problem. The program will automatically change measures. No big deal. But it has been a long and difficult process creating the software. And it must be also not too surprising that there are only. Yes to make a program for CAD is very, very complicated. Therefor the program is expensive.
The overall costs are high though. An engineer needs extensive continuous training, a high powered computer and. The one who has to pay for that is YOU, the customer. Just remember this when you want to have the engineer, or your. It might seem easy and just costs a few minutes. CAD started as a very simple drawing program, enabling the.
But the drawing program rapidly evolved into an object oriented environment. Lisp and C. as programming tools.
Soon supported by libaries of pre- drawn (pre- feb) objects. Auto tracing is another feature that gives CAD advantage over. Say you want to draw the piping scheme for your central heating.
In CAD you. only have to indicate the beginning and end points and CAD draws the lines. No more figuring out where to. CAD does. that for you. Again some years later 3. D modeling was the next development. Design time and development of new machines, planes.
The user can now see. D that can be turned around to get a better impression. When the programming tools were introduced the CAD system could.
Now it was possible to calculate strength, pressure. Thanks to this new techniques a lot of material could be saved. And more complex constructions made.
If you compare between the constructions. Eiffel tower and the Tokyo financial skyscraper there is a vast difference.
Or the planes. from the 1. A Boeing 7. 67 could not have been build without the. CAD. In the 2. 1st century almost everything is designed and manufactured.
CAD and systems derived from it: CAM - computer aided manufacturing. Chronology. 19. 50- 1. The first graphic system was in mid 1. US Air Force's SAGE (Semi Automatic. Ground Environment) air defense system. The system was developed at Massachusetts. Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory.
The system involved the use of CTR displays to show computer- processed radar. Dr. Patrick J. Hanratty known as "the Father of CADD/CAM" for his. PRONTO, the first commercial numerical- control programming. In 1. 95. 9 the Cal. Comp company is founded.
In 1. 96. 0, Ivan Sutherland used TX- 2 computer produced at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory. SKETCHPAD, which is considered the first step to. CAD industry. Bill Barnes established in his garage in Denver on 1. January 1. 96. 2, Auto- trol.
Mr. Barnes named the company. Auto- trol as a shortened version of automated control, which he had given to. Parallel projects were developed at ITEK and General Motors. The ITEK project was called The Electronic Drafting Machine and used a PDP- 1.
Digital Equipment Corp., a vector - refresh display and a large. Inputs commands were. While at General Motors Research Laboratories in the 1.
Dr. Hanratty was. DAC (Design Automated by Computer), the first production interactive.
In 1. 96. 0 Mc. Donnell Douglas Automation Company (Mc. Auto) founded. It will play. CAD developments with the introduction of CADD program. The first Computer- Aided Design programs used simple algorithms to display. D. Early work in this direction had been produced by Prof. Charles Eastman at Carnegie- Mellon. University, the Building Description System is a library of several hundred.
In 1. 96. 2, SLS Environectics in Chicago began development of the Man- Mac machine. In mid 1. 96. 0 large computers characterized the period, vector display terminals. The only significant attempt to create a commercially CAD system was Control.
Data Corporation's Digigraphics division, a successor to the previously mentioned. ITEK. The system costs half million dollars and were sold in few units.
In March 1. 96. 5 Donald Welbourn heard a lecture to the Engineering Society by. Strachey of the Mathematical Laboratory (now the Department of Computer Science). MIT on Computer Aided Design (CAD). He was so fascinated by this that the following morning he caught the Head of. Cambridge University Engineering Department, Prof. J. F. Baker (later the. Lord Baker of Trumpington) in the tea- room, told him about it, and said that.
Baker was enthusiastic, and by the end of the year, the Science Research Council. Baker and Welbourn a grant of £6. CAD. Initially work was done on the PDP1. C. A. Lang. The first research student was A. R. Forrest, who tackled the problem of how to. The conceptual breakthrough of defining objects in terms of 3. D reference lines.
S. Matthews, seconded by the Ford Motor Co. Dr. Jason R Lemon founds SDRC in Cincinnati. In 1. 96. 8 Donald Welbourn, now the Director in Industrial Co- Operation at Cambridge. University, had the vision to see the possibility of using computers to assist.
D shapes. Today we take for granted 3. D modelling, in 1. D drawing systems.
Initial work was sponsored by Ford but finding money to support the development. Donald Welbourn. Only six years later he managed to obtain sponsorship from Control Data in Germany. Delta Engineering Group. Control Data offered DUCT initially as a bureau. German customers Volkswagen and Daimler.
Benz. David Evans and Ivan Sutherland founded in 1. Evans and Sutherland. Dr. Hanratty founded United Computing in 1. In the same year MAGI company. Syntha Vision considered by many to be the first commercial. In 1. 96. 9 were founding Computervision and Applicon companies.
Computervision was created to produce systems for production drafting and in. CAD system to Xerox. Several other companies began to offer automated design/drafting systems in. Applicon was more a research- oriented company. In the mid 8. 0s it was acquired. Schlumberger and then merged with MDSI which Schlumberger had acquired earlier.
Colma was originally a manufacturer of digitizer used in mapping and integrated. In mid 8. 0s Colma was acquired by General Electric and then sold to Prime Computer. M& S Computing founded (later becomes Intergraph). At the beggining it.
Among these technologies were application- oriented user interfaces that communicated. The first Intergraph computer graphics system to apply these innovative computing. Meanwhile, in 1. 97. Donald Welbourn had become Director in Industrial Co- operation. Director of the Wolfson Cambridge Industrial Unit.
He persuaded the Pye. Foundation to support T. H. Gossling, a member of the Unit, in developing DUCT. Control Data had also become interested in the work, seeing it as a front end. Finite Element meshes. As a result of this industrial support. Welbourn, had been able in 1.
Dr. R. B. Morris and. Dr. J. Matthewman to continue developing DUCT.
The Science Research Council had said that this work was no longer research. Faced with a potential disaster vis- à- vis the DTI, Welbourn took the. This resulted in a quality of handbook which was partly responsible for VW and. Daimler- Benz taking licenses for DUCT, since they said that they had never seen.
Welbourn never did any of the programming in connection with the work, but made. In the early stages of the work, up to the oil crisis. Cambridge, thus enabling the firms to get experience of CAD without having. MCS was founded in 1. Dr. Patrick J. Hanratty.
Since the day it was founded. MCS has enjoyed an enviable reputation for technological leadership. CADD/CAM software. In addition to selling products under its own name, in its early years MCS also.
CADD/CAM software used by such companies as Mc. Donnell Douglas (Unigraphics). Computervision (CADDS), AUTOTROL (AD3.
Control Data (CD- 2. In fact, industry analysts have estimated that 7. D mechanical. CADD/CAM systems available today trace their roots back to MCS's original code. The company's first product, ADAM (Automated Drafting and Machining), was released.
In 1. 97. 2 the CUED was able to obtain two 3- axis n/c machine tools with a DTI. CAD to be expanded. CAM. One of these, a Hayes milling machine, went onto the firm's stand at the Machine. Tool Exhibition at Olympia that Autumn, and thanks to a sterling effort by P. J. Payne. a jug- like object, was cut on the stand. This was probably the first ever public demonstration of 3- D CADCAM at a machine.
The earliest Intergraph (M& S Computing) terminal was designed to. Composed of unaltered stock parts from. Tektronix 4. 01. 4 display. Hillman Trust purchased Auto- trol. That same year, Auto- trol emerged as. CAD industry by announcing Auto- Draft, one of the. There was also a significant amount of internal development at major automotive.
General Motors, Ford, Chrysler and Lockheed, which. CADAM. By the end of 1.
WCIU to make simple tools for them. These were probably the first industrial.
CADCAM. They were both programmed by T. H. Gossling, and made in the CUED workshop. In 1. 97. 4 the first commercial sale of an M& S system.
The system - based. PDP central processor from Digital Equipment Corporation - ran the first.
Intergraph's original core graphics software, the Interactive Graphics. Design System (IGDS), and was used for mapping applications. Electronic Data System Corporation (EDS) is founded in 1. A major improvement was the new 1.
Tektronix in. 1. 97.
I Am Drafter! | Cadalyst. May, 2. 01. 1By: Curt Moreno. Assume any job title you want; just don't forget your roots in a vital and respectable craft. Editor's Note: This article was originally published in the Winter/Spring 2. Cadalyst magazine. Hi. My name is Curt Moreno, and I am a drafter. Yeah, I said it: I'm a drafter.
I am not a CAD support specialist, a CAD technician, a BIM alchemist, or a computer- aided scribble coordinator. I am a drafter, plain and simple, and I consider the decision to call myself a drafter a serious one. In the 2. 0 or so years that I've been in the CAD racket, I've seen people call themselves all manner of titles. Regardless, two things connect all these people with me — and probably with you, too. First, let me clarify that it is perfectly acceptable to call yourself whatever you like. Whether you want your title to be CAD manager or Corporate Executive in Charge of Angry Gorillas — my boss said no to that one — if it makes you happy, put it on your business card. Even though my role is CAD manager, my business cards happen to say Kung Fu Drafter, because I am awesome.
Using any title you want is OK because when I say, "I am a drafter," I am not referring to my job title, I am referring to my profession. Second, whether your title is CAD manager or BIM technician or whatever, if you're like me, then you make a living by drawing lines. No, really; that is the very basis of what we do as CAD professionals — whether you create 2. D lines or 3. D models, you are a drafter. We draw lines to create documents, models, exhibits, and plans for others to use in creating physical forms. Whether we are discussing buildings, bridges, cars, T- shirts, or video- game machines, before it becomes tangible and reproducible, someone draws it.
That someone is us. That is sort of deep when you begin to mull it around in the old hat holder: Before it is tangible and reproducible, someone draws it.
Deep, yes, but entirely appropriate and fitting. And, as fitting now as it was hundreds of years ago! The Translator. Why did the world ever need drafters? How is it that, through the ages, there have been literally millions of us? The answer is simple. Between a person with a concept and a person with the skill to build an object, there is the translator.
The translator draws a document used to ensure an object is made exactly as it is envisioned. Without the translator, there is no skyscraper or dog toy. Engineering alone cannot will a jet into existence and into the air.
Between design and construction is a craft every bit as important as either of those. That is the craft of drafting. Our profession suffers from too many veterans who have forgotten that they practice a craft. The rush to adopt new technologies popping up every year has brought not only a crushing wave of new titles and positions, but a new mentality that seems to accept and even encourage that we leave behind our identity as drafters. Drafter = Added Value. As drafters, our craft should be not only a source of community and pride but also a source of value. By maintaining our connection to our common craft, we can tap into our community and heritage to buoy our morale and professional standing.
As a group, we must maintain our value. If we don't — that is, if we continue to become progressively more specialized in how we describe our work — we'll be contributing to the devaluation of our profession rather than adding value to it. Such value is realized not only in pay scales but also in the respect allotted to any profession by another. Common business practices are such that if you want to advance your career, you must change positions. Moving up the corporate ladder means that the drafter becomes obviated. Yesterday's drafter is today's CAD technician, tomorrow's CAD manager, and next month's "new- technology coordinator." Onward and upward is the way to win the shell game.
Too many of us have been convinced that drafter is a bad word and that what we do is not a profession or a craft. This disdain for drafter is what has led us to believe that CAD is somehow a new and disparate practice. We are now well into a generation of CAD professionals who never practiced on a board. These people don't necessarily realize that they practice a timeless craft. Consequently, they believe that the value of their work is tied to the pay rate of their job. That is a terrible shame. This devaluation at the very base of our profession is no less dangerous than releasing a jar of termites at the base of a wooden tower.
The damage is invisible at first, but eventually the tower crumbles under its own weight. Slowly but surely, the devaluation of the drafter combined with the race to adopt new technology will eat away at the foundation of our craft. If the trend continues in our profession toward more specialized job titles, the devaluation of the drafter, and the dissolution of the greater community, what effect will that have in the future? I fear it will become increasingly difficult to maintain fair pay scales and attract new generations to our craft. Where will the new BIM guru come from if there are no general CAD drafters? What sort of worth will new CAD drafters place on their work if their pay is dropping and their goal is to get out?
Will the future even know new generations of drafters, or are we a dying breed? As our job titles become increasingly varied, I maintain that it is important that we see through them. Don't let the cult of initials and professional apartheid lead you to believe that we're different people in different groups. Hold tight to our shared craft and lean on the long, rich history it provides.
Don't allow the respect and pay deserved of your position to be minimized because of a "lack of industry historical pay rates." Each of us is more than the person at the end of the production cycle. We are drafters. Note: Comments are moderated and will appear live after approval by the site moderator.